are tarsiers dangerous to humans
an animal which directly causes disease in humans. at www.jstor.org/stable/1373878. These large eyes are also the cause of their unique and weird skull structure. HOW DOES SPECIES ENDANGERMENT BEGIN? In Indonesia and Malaysia the Western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) has huge bulging eyes, making the head broader than it is long; it also has the longest feet, and its tail is tufted at the tip. No, tarsiers are not dangerous to humans. 2014. 2017. With only one young per year they do not have the potential to be pests. A tarsier typically costs around $1,000. These clades are composed evolutionarily and geographically, as some species are only found on certain islands or in particular regions. Tarsiers can rotate their heads 180 degrees. Effects of radio transmitter weight on a small nocturnal primate. The Siau Island Tarsier (Tarsius tumpara), listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List, lives on a small volcanic island, and, "This threat is exacerbated by a relatively large human population (311 people/km) that has converted virtually all of the primary habitat to some form of human use (Shekelle and Salim 2009a, 2009b)," writes IUCN. to jointly display, usually with sounds in a highly coordinated fashion, at the same time as one other individual of the same species, often a mate. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29: 147-194. The ancestors of Homo sapiens diverged from the ancestors of other primates at varying times, and that means we're closely related to some primates, and more distantly related to others. However, like monkeys, apes, and humans, they have a nose that is dry and hair-covered, not moist . 1997. Functional Morphology of Mimetic Musculature in Primates: How Social Variables and Body Size Stack up to Phylogeny. There are a variety of reasons why tarsiers may be suicidal, as there is no one definitive answer. Into the Light: The Origin of Anthropoidea. However, the tarsier is unique in that its the only venomous (and poisonous!) These calls to Celebrity Island (Sulawesi) are Deutsch separate but complementary calls made by men and women. 2014. The Tarsiers pass through the forest, launching from trunk to trunk with the help of their enormous lengthy hands. Implantation of the zygote is the same as that of lemuroids and . Any evidence of captive lifespan is not directly applicable to wild tarsier lifespan. Philippine tarsiers ( Tarsius syrichta ), primates native to Southeast Asia that are often no bigger than a human hand, pass messages using an unbreakable code: ultrasonic sounds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: Ecological and Evolutionary Approaches, 87: 30-45. at https://link-springer-com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/article/10.1007/s10764-010-9443-1. Actually, tarsiers help control some harmful insects, including grasshoppers, caterpillars, and moths. Required fields are marked *. February 12, 2018 11th floor, Nihonodori , Naka-ku , Yokohama 231-0021 firstname.lastname@example.org 2013. having the capacity to move from one place to another. The tarsier is named for its elongated "tarsus" or ankle bone.The genus Carlito is named after conservationist Carlito Pizarras. Accordingly, are tarsiers dangerous? living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture. The Hyo-Laryngeal Complex of Tarsius Bancanus (Mammalia, Primates): a Developmental and Phylogenetic Aspect.. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 66: 257-272. Accessed Fossils of Eocene and Miocene tarsiers are found in China, Thailand, and southern Pakistan (Zijlstra, 2013). 1987. Groves, C. 2018. Although some agriculturalists consider them pests, this is a misconception because they do not negatively impact crops or farmland (Canete, 2003). Since, for example, the tarsiers eyes and ankle bones differ so much from those of other primates, the genes associated with eye or bone growth and development are likely to differ as well. Brown, R., J. Weghorst, K. Olson, M. Duya, A. However, if kept as pets, the species can spread insects and other parasites among its human owners. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); Your email address will not be published. Tarsiers may have evolved their ultrasonic skills to listen for their prey, since they feed entirely on insects . TARSIIDAE. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. With eyes twice as big as their brains, a head that can rotate 180 degrees in each direction and the ability to track prey using ultrasound, the tiny animals are formidable nocturnal hunters. Tarsiers are intermediate in form between lemurs and monkeys, measuring only about 916 cm (3.56 inches) long, excluding a tail of about twice that length. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. These small primates are found in the forests of Southeast Asia, where they eat insects and small vertebrates. Barley, M. Duya, M. Shekelle, I. Neri-Arboleda, J. Esselstyn, N. Dominy, P. Ong, G. Moritz, A. Luczon, M. Diesmos, A. Diesmos, C. Siller. at www.jstor.org/stable/29542959. The duet vocalizations are likely a mating call to lead males to females. Over time, transposons lose the ability to jump. Tarsier taxonomy is a matter of some debate; however, most biologists divide Tarsiidae into three genera (Tarsius, Cephalopachus, and Carlito [Philippine tarsiers]) and recognize 13 or more species. Tarsier dentition indicates an insectivorous diet, but some species will prey on small birds and rodents, crabs, frogs, bats, or snakes (MacKinnon, 1980). Gebo, D., M. Dagosto, X. Ni, C. Beard. Updates on campus events, policies, construction and more. (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980), For the first three weeks of an infant tarsier's life, it is common for the mother to carry them in their mouths whenever they move. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). All species designate a spot to roost in dense vegetation, usually either in pairs or groups. Some tarsier species enact mating rituals of "duetting", or mating calls that entail one party chattering out and another responding with a similar chatter. The tail of the Tarsier animal crawled on the underside like a rat; In most species, it has a hair edge or a terminal brush. Accessed at https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=572805#null. It is now widely accepted that tarsiers are members of the suborder haplorrhine, grouped with anthropoids (Ross, 2000). It succeeds in both old-growth and secondary forestry but can be found in low-scrubbed plants, even in the village. The abnormal face of the torsion also has short, large, membranous ears that are almost constantly moving, especially in the bones of the long ankle (tarsals, hence the name tarsier), a small body and a round head that can be rotated 180 ated. They have eyes that are heavier than their brains. communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them, breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. mexican candy delivery; captain spaulding 18 inch figure Gursky, S. 2002. Accessed Menke, P., W. Henke. Below: Asian palm civet is a skillful climber and dangerous to the tree-dwelling tarsiers. primate The order of mammals that includes humans, apes, monkeys and related animals (such as tarsiers, the Daubentonia and other lemurs). 2016. Having larger eyes allows them to capture more light. They can become aggressive and stressed in captivity and may even injure themselves. They spring between trees and branches to catch insects. dolor de espalda alta pulmones covid; times higher education world university rankings; why did cam henry become the executioner; They then scanned the scientific literature to identify human diseases associated with those genes and found 47 diseases. (On-line). January 05, 2018 A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. The most distinctive is the high-mountain pygmy tarsier (T. pumilus). The Tarsier feeds primarily on insects, utilizing its long tongue and highly sensitive hearing to locate and capture prey.Additionally, Tarsiers are able to use their big eyes for navigation - for instance, Tarsiers can move their heads about 180 degrees in either direction without . Intraspecific Variation in the Mating System of Spectral Tarsiers. Journal of Zoology, 0952-8369: 261-268. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. (Groves and Shekelle, 2010; Ross, 2000; Wiesemuller and Hartmut, 1999), Tarsiers are small furry primates with large red eyes, small dentition, and short limbs and hands relative to other primates (Groves, 2010). Tarsiers are one of those animals that are not dangerous to humans. (Merker and Yustian, 2008; Shekelle, et al., 2018), Four fossil species are known. She joined WashU Medicine Marketing & Communications in 2016. Disclaimer: But of course there are other hypotheses.". The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 301: 202-215. Home ranges, spatial movements and habitat associations ofthe Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta) in Corella, Bohol. rainforests, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground. But observations suggest that lorises can take down these animals and eat them fairly quicklyno . Tarsiers are recognized by their large, beady, reddish-orange eyes and tiny stature. However, despite being so large, youll be able to find all of the species in this family in Maritime Southeast Asia. (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980; Shekelle and Nietch, 2008; Van Schaik and Kappeler, 1997), Tarsiers have 2 mating seasons, in 6 month intervals. animals that live only on an island or set of islands. January 05, 2018 Whats the Difference Between Monkeys and Apes? Because tarsiers are nocturnal, they need to be able to receive as much light as possible. (Groves, 2018; Merker and Yustian, 2008; Zijlstra, et al., 2013), Tarsiers inhabit tropical forests and islands of Southeast Asia. January 05, 2018 At first, a tarsier will sound off with a loud vocal meant to alert others as well as threaten the predator. While their claws are not strong enough to penetrate human skin, they can certainly leave a mark. 2. Adults live in monogamous pairs and keep in contact vocally during the night, defending territory against other pairs using extremely high-pitched calls. 2015. (Gursky-Doyen, 2010). Tarsiers are interesting animals because they can rotate their heads 180 degrees.  Tarsier Relationship with Humans. 1 . Population in the human habitation threatens continuous existence of the Tarsier animal. The lack of eye shine makes tarsiers one of the most difficult nocturnal animals in Borneo to locate. Thats not to say thats all they eat though. 3. Unmarried young women are born at a very advanced age after six months of pregnancy, bright and eyes open of the Tarsier animal. Sea . 1. Tarsiers are unique among primates in that they eat mainly insects, and they use their sharp claws and teeth to capture their prey. They hunt prey on the ground, in the air, and on tree branches and leaves (Gron, 2010). My Blog are tarsiers dangerous to humans Tarsiers are lemurlike in being nocturnal and having a well-developed sense of smell. (Gursky, 1998; Gursky-Doyen, 2010; Neri-Arboleda, et al., 2002), Tarsiers communicate through vocalization and scent marking. by . However, the price can vary depending on the specific species and where you purchase it from. This can lead to sleep deprivation and a host of other health problems. 2003. The tail is roughly twice the head and body length (Shekelle 2003). Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals. 2017. "Tarsius" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Thats right, even larger primates like most monkeys and gorillas still eat fruits or vegetation. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes (elephantiasis and river blindness). In a monogamous pair both parents will visit the infant during this time. While they may look harmless, tarsiers are equipped with long, sharp claws that they use to hunt their prey. Try 3 issues of BBC Science Focus Magazine for 5! having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Tarsier songs and human language are different in many ways. Tarsiers are too small to be hunted. Canete, A. These arboreal primates are found in forests that range in density and agriculture from island to island. Tarsiers are small primates that are native to Southeast Asia. As I have said, it was dusk at the time, but the Loris is nocturnal, so that his expedient would rarely be required except in the dusk or dark ; and the sound was a perfect imitation. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Molecular Biology and Evolution, msx312: 1-10. Their pelage is mostly grey, with hues of red, yellow, or brown (Gron, 2010). The small brain of the Tarsier animal has a huge visual cortex to process information from the large googling eyes that are most attractive to animals. "The tarsier genome is a modern archive of evolutionary changes that led to humans." Having the complete tarsier genome also allowed the researchers to comprehensively study the genes that make tarsiers unique. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" 1980. Tarsiers tiny, carnivorous primates are our distant cousins, according to scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, who sequenced and analyzed the tarsier genome. An animal that eats mainly insects or spiders. The tarsier is able to secrete a particular toxin from a gland found in their arm. 2008. The Oestrus Cycle in Tarsius: Observations on a Captive Pair. However, overall, there have been only 17 fatal incidents involving stingrays and humans over . tarsier, (family Tarsiidae), any of about 13 species of small leaping primates found only on various islands of Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. Some scholarly articles suggest dividing the genus into 3 and some references reflect this attempted revised taxonomy. 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110-1010. Nocturnal primates that live in Southeast Asia, the loriseshave round heads, big eyes,fuzzy fur, andif they lick a gland under their arms and combine the secretion there with their salivaa less-than-adorable toxic bite. International Journal of Primatology, 1/4: 361-379. Accessed Accessed The 3-7 surviving tarsier species have heavy dependence on vision and hearing but reduced ability to smell.Unlike lemur s and loris es, tarsiers lack a long snout and a rhinarium. If an amino acid has been uniquely changed and it is putatively associated with the tarsiers novel musculature, maybe its an important part of the protein and worthy of a closer look when linked to human disease.. Yes, argues a paper published in the Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases last year. The size of the eyes and visual cortex is probably made necessary by the absence of a reflective layer (tapetum) that the eyes of most other nocturnal mammals possess. reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female. The position of tarsiers among primates has been considered controversial. However, if kept as pets, the species can spread insects and other parasites among its human owners. at http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792525. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 264/1388: 1687-1694. Journal of Mammalogy, 12: 281-285. seaway news police blotter; cold war zombies tips for beginners; aetna vice president salary. February 12, 2018 Friderun Ankel-Simons, in Primate Anatomy (Third Edition), 2007. As I went into the room I looked at the cage, which was on the floor, and on the top of it I saw the outline of a cobra sitting up with hood expanded, and threatening a cat who crouched about six feet away. Based on phylogenetic research, including molecular data, tarsiers are more closely related to humans and apes then lemurs and lorises. Loris, Tarsier animals, monkeys, apes, and humans. Tarsiers Are Named After Their Anklebones. Apes are found in Africa and South East Asia, and tarsiers are found only in South East . (Groves and Shekelle, 2010; Zijlstra, et al., 2013). While mothers hunt, the infants are often left on a tree branch for intervals of time. The Philippine tarsier is capable of hearing super high frequencies, some up to 91 kHz (or 91,000 Hz). Accessed March 04, 2023 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Tarsius/. Tarsier social dynamics can be difficult to navigate. Or, like the male platypuss spur, it could have evolved to be used as a weapon during fights with other lorises. The eyes and placenta are also simiiform in structure. The photo illustrates the small size of the tarsier, a carnivorous primate whose genome has been sequenced and analyzed by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Tarsiers shared more recent transposon families with squirrel monkeys and humans, and only the oldest ones with bushbabies, indicating that tarsiers belong with the dry-nosed primates. Faulkner, S., M. Stevenson, R. Verity, A. Mustari, S. Semple, D. Tosh, S. Le Comber. Bohol Tarsiers (Tarsius Syrichta) measures 4 to 5 inches and is considered as the world's smallest primate. These small-bodied, nocturnal, solitary creatures resemble lower primates in their behavior but genetically, DNA evidence aligns them more closely with higher . Shekelle, M., A. Salim, I. Arboleda. The second and third toes on their feet have claws instead, which they use for grooming. Toxin might help them subdue the birds, bats, lizards and even tarsiers they are known to eat. However, tarsiers are at risk, if insecticides are . Accessed However, in one wild study, average head and body lengths for spectral tarsiers ( T. tarsier) were significantly higher at 24.3 cm (9.6 in) (male) and 23.0 cm (9.1 in) (female) (Gursky 2007a). Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Schmitz J, Noll A, Raabe CA, Churakov G, Voss R, Kiefmann M, Rozhdestvensky T, Brosius J, Baertsch R, Clawson H, Roos C, Zimin A, Minx P, Montague MJ, Wilson RK, Warren WC. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Journal of Zoology, 257: 387-402. Consistently ranked a top medical school for research, Washington University School of Medicine is also a catalyst in the St. Louis biotech and startup scene. Since, for example, the tarsiers' eyes and ankle bones differ so much from those of other primates, the genes associated with eye . Zeitschrift Fr Morphologie Und Anthropologie, 82: 115-157. #cockroach #shorts #youtubeshorts Although they have large eyes and long fingers that make them look somewhat sinister, they are actually quite harmless. What food does tarsier eat? MacKinnon, J., K. MacKinnon. Social media posts say that chitin, a compound contained in insect exoskeletons, cannot be processed by the human body and that bugs are not a food for mammals. Corrections? Guides can find them by a musky scent. They sleep during the day while holding a vertical branch or bamboo. Van Schaik, C., P. Kappeler. associates with others of its species; forms social groups. Scent marking on trees is used to attract mates and warn off competitors by marking territory (Neri-Arboleda, 2002). Tarsiers are also known to eat almost every part of their catch including bones and feet. At least one taxonomy, however, recognizes only seven species and places all of these within Tarsius. Western Tarsiers (Philippine) . Tarsiers move through the forest by launching themselves from trunk to trunk propelled by their greatly elongated hind limbs. However, the tarsier is unique in that it's the only venomous (and poisonous!) Oct. 6, 2016. 2008. The tarsier is a nocturnal carnivore found in the forests of southeast Asia. When you think of venomous animals, you probably think of snakes or spiders. (Driller, et al., 2015; Zijlstra, et al., 2013), Tarsiers strictly inhabit forests of Southeast Asia. Forget having eyes larger than their stomachs tarsiers can have eyes larger than their brains! Tarsier behavior changes due to old age between 14 and 16 years of age. Tarsiers have the largest eyes relative to body size of any mammal . -Tarsiers are also one of the only primates that are nocturnal, meaning they are active at night and sleep during the day. That opened up the loriss habitat more and could have provided pressure to mimic a poisonous snake. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Single young are born in a fairly well-developed state, furred and with eyes open, after a gestation of perhaps six months. March 04, 2018 Privacy Statement Conclusion. This can lead to them feeling constantly hungry, which can be frustrating and lead to feelings of despair. Some live in pairs, groups of variable size, and some males may live alone. Tarsiers live on the islands of the southern Philippines, Celebes (Sulawesi), Borneo, Bangka, Belitung, the Natuna Islands, and Sumatra. Posted by February 14, 2022 avatar characters fire nation on are tarsiers dangerous to humans February 14, 2022 avatar characters fire nation on are tarsiers dangerous to humans Tamara worked in research labs for about a decade before switching to science writing. Slow lorises have snake-like markings, postures and a hiss that all resemble the speckled cobra. at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.08.001. They eat insects, lizards, and small birds. No, the tarsier is notorious for its captivity problems because even the slightest stress in life can cause them to die. May 04, 2018 The tarsiers small brain has an enormous visual cortex to process information from the large goggling eyes, the animals most striking feature. Being touched, being kept in a cage or enclosures, bright flashes, large noises this is just a small list of the things that can cause distress for the tarsier. They have enourmous eyes and incredible hearing to enable them to catch insects at night. Moritz, G., P. Ong, G. Perry, N. Dominy. On the island of Celebes (Sulawesi) these calls are duetsdifferent but complementary calls made by the male and female. Bohol Tarsiers. However, there is much more to tarsiers than meets their eyes! Tarsiers are the only extant entirely carnivorous primates: they are primarily insectivorous, and catch insects by jumping at them. Infanticide Risk and the Evolution of Male-Female Association in Primates. Tarsier is a small leaping primate animal of six or more species are only found in several islands in Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. found in the oriental region of the world. at https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx312. February 12, 2018 They tend to only be found in forests where certain types of vines are found, as they use these for support when climbing. Galago Pet Can I have a Bush Baby as a Pet. Gron, K. 2010. Later on, a small population of tigers became trapped in Palawan when the gap widened as a result of rising sea levels. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! They eat only insects and other living things. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. There are over a dozen of living species of tarsier found in the world now, with more having gone extinct in the past. Other groups may also join in when they hear this call, which means that you may have multiple males attacking a single predator with their venomous bites before they separate again. 2002. Janiak, M., M. Chaney, A. Tosi. Are tarsiers dangerous? Stop and Go Waves of Tarsier Dispersal Mirror the Genesis of Sulawesi Island. Mandrill Diet What Does the Mandrill Eat? In captivity, however, they may be kept in a quiet environment which can lead to sensory overload and distress. If we can sequence the genome of other tarsiers, we can measure the population diversity. (Canete, 2003), Like most primates, some parasites and diseases can be passed from tarsiers to humans. Contributor Galleries We treat our patients and train new leaders in medicine at Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, both ranked among the nations best hospitals and recognized for excellence in care. These little creatures aren't harmful to humans. Using geographic profiling to locate elusive nocturnal animals: a case study with spectral tarsiers. It will help us determine how endangered they really are so we can implement measures to better protect them.. Journal of Human Evolution, 113: 38-82. morgan wallace dangerous lyrics . Vegetation includes shrubs, bamboo, palm, dense thickets of grass, bush, thorn scrubs, and secondary habitats on plantations for logging and growing coffee, nutmeg, coconut, or coca crops (Gron, 2010) (MacKinnon, 1980). Quick climate changes in the region stripped the Malay Peninsula oftropical forests and replaced them with drier woodlands. These huge eyes allow for nocturnal vision, despite the lack of a tapidum lucidum. The Philippine tarsier (T. syrichta) has a totally bald tail, and the feet are also nearly hairless. Specimen are dated from the middle Eocene of China, middle Miocene of Thailand, Oligocene of Egypt, Miocene of Lybia, and Eocene of Myanmar (Zijlstra, 2013). Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Needlemans commit $15 million to boost drug discovery, Pediatric primary care on the front lines of teen mental health crisis, Gut bacteria affect brain health, mouse study shows, Join the Institute for Informatics Data-Justice Symposium on March 31, Affordable mental health care for employees and their children, Minds quality control center found in long-ignored brain area, Mice with hallucination-like behaviors reveal insight into psychotic illness, 2023 Washington University in St. Louis. The fur is thick, silky, and coloured gray to dark brown. Until it was rediscovered in 2008, the last living pygmy tarsier specimen had been seen in 1921. Convergent in birds. One Philippine tarsier lived to 13 years of age in captivity, and lifespan in the wild is . at https://link-springer-com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/article/10.1007/s10764-010-9457-8. New World Monkeys A Phylogenetic Study. The Form of the Tracheal Cartilages of Primates, with Remarks on the Supposed Taxonomic Importance.. Females often remain in their parental group throughout their life, unless forming monogamous pairs. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate, helpers provide assistance in raising young that are not their own. . Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Childrens hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare. Tarsius syrichta is considered near threatened. Accessed Frontiers in Physiology, 8/745: 1-13. The hind legs of the tarsier are longer percentage-wise than any other mammal. | All species experience sexual dimorphism and females tend to be smaller than males. They are a wild animal and are not used to being in captivity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Chronometrics of Tarsiidae Based on 12S mtDNA Haplotypes: Evidence for Miocene Origins of Crown Tarsiers and Numerous Species within the Sulawesian Clade. Today, the tarsiers' range is mostly limited to the southern Philippines, Borneo, and the Celebes Islands to the east of Borneo. The hind legs of a tarsier are twice as long as their body, and muscular making them particularly specialized for leaping. gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), post-independence association with parents, The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: Ecological and Evolutionary Approaches, Functional preservation and variation in the cone opsin genes of nocturnal tarsiers, Zeitschrift Fr Morphologie Und Anthropologie, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.08.001, http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/tarsier, https://link-springer-com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/article/10.1007/s10764-010-9443-1, https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=572805#null, https://link-springer-com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/article/10.1007/s10329-007-0072-z, https://link-springer-com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/article/10.1007/s10764-010-9457-8, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/21491/0, Absence of patches of cytochrome oxidase activity in V1 cortex of eye, 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan.